Ages and Stages

All parents, including parenting youth, have questions about healthy child development and want to guide their children to become responsible, happy adults. This involves parents having discussions with their children about sexuality at an early age and as they grow. Parenting youth often need support to do this. Service providers are well positioned to provide this support.  

Sexuality is not just sexual intercourse or activity. Sexuality includes:

  • Gender roles, identities and sexual orientation.
  • Body image.
  • Relationships with others.
  • How we grow and change over the years.
  • Our bodies and how we reproduce.
  • Personality, communication, expression, and values.
Sexuality is not static; it changes as an individual grows and moves through different life stages. Children develop their sense of gender identity as they observe others around them and begin to learn about relationships and boundaries. As they grow and enter puberty their sexual development plays an important role as they move into adulthood.
Adults all express and experience their sexuality differently through their relationships. Parenthood brings changes and challenges of helping children become healthy and happy with their sexuality.


I don’t know whether to be mad at my daughter or mad at the daycare. It’s hard to hear that your four year old has asked to look at her friend’s penis, but isn’t that normal curiosity? The day care said that the behaviour was inappropriate and gave her a really hard time. I’m sure they think I’m not a good parent, being a teen mom, but I try really hard. Makes me wonder how I can talk with her about sex and if not having her dad or another man around in her life is an even bigger problem.

Sexual Development in Children

Most children go through the stages of sexual development in a similar pattern, but may be at different rates. Parents can talk to a health care provider like a doctor or public health nurse about a child or youth’s physical development or sexual behaviour .

Ages birth to 2 years 

  • Children learn about love and trust through touching and holding. Become responsive to physical touch and pick up nonverbal/verbal messages that begin to shape the child’s understanding of their own sexuality.
  • Children explore their own body parts.
  • Children have growing awareness of bodily functions e.g., toileting and the messages from parents and others about these functions.
  • As speech and communication is learned, children can develop language to use correct names for body parts including their genitals. 
  • Children can experience genital pleasure.

Ages 3 to 4 years 

  • Gender identity develops (e.g., children begin to identify a sense of being male, female, both or neither).
  • Body exploration with peers is common (e.g., playing doctor).
  • Children may touch their own genitals for pleasure.


 Typical sexual development for young children can include curiosity about the body with peers. To help young children develop healthy boundaries it’s important to talk with them about safety and privacy (e.g., your body is private and so is everyone else’s).

Ages 5 to 7 years 

  • Children are establishing a foundation of their gender identity shown by how they look, the name they use and the roles they explore through play.
  • Body exploration is common.
  • Children are aware of sex differences and reproduction e.g., if a family member is pregnant, they may want to know where babies come from.
  • The media, as well as family members, influence their understanding of sex and gender.

Ages 8 to 12 years 

  • Children begin to notice the physical changes of puberty (e.g., pubic hair, breast development, menstruation).
  • Peer group has an increased influence on child’s self-image including their understanding of sexuality.
  • Main attachments are still often to members of their own gender.
  • May masturbate.
  • May begin to menstruate (have periods).
  • May start to have nocturnal emissions (wet dreams).
  • Children begin to separate from parents wanting more independence.

Good to know

 Some children masturbate (touch their genitals for pleasure); some do not. Both can be normal. They may do it because it feels good or for stress relief. Parents and professionals can provide messaging about masturbation that includes positive messaging about getting to know one’s body, safety and healthy boundaries. E.g. “It’s ok to touch your genitals. It can feel nice and can help you get to know your body. It’s important to do it in private only.” Then, be sure to help identify a safe, private place.


 For advice on how to manage sexuality in the media, see the pamphlet Sexuality and the Media: A Guide for Parents and Caregivers.

Ages 13 and older

  • Production of sex hormones lead to continued physical and emotional changes.
  • Greater interest in sexuality, experiencing sexual thoughts and feelings. Teens experience sexual fantasies as a way of preparing for and understanding their sexual roles.
  • May masturbate.
  • May have sexual attraction or experience with someone of any sex or gender as sexual orientation is explored.

What Children and Youth Need to Know

For children and youth to develop healthy relationships and boundaries, they need to know the following:

  • Correct names of body parts (penis, testicles, anus, scrotum, vulva, labia, vagina, clitoris, uterus, ovaries). This is a critical step to respecting the body, normalizing sexual health and building self-care skills.
  • Where babies come from (e.g., a sperm cell joins with an ovum/egg through sexual intercourse).
  • A baby grows in the uterus and is born through the vagina (or C-section if needed).
  • Practical knowledge (e.g., “Where are your private parts?”). This knowledge is needed as soon as possible because this can potentially protect children from sexual abuse.
  • Personal boundaries (e.g., “My body is mine and my body is private. I do not ask to look at others’ private parts and I do not show mine to others”).
  • Not to pick up condoms.
  • Family and cultural beliefs and values about sexuality (e.g., what age to start dating, and the rationale for this).
  • Basics about menstrual periods, erections and wet dreams (nocturnal emissions) as normal and healthy processes.
  • Continued support building and maintaining personal boundaries, such as when to share information.
  • Introduction of how their bodies develop and change during puberty.
  • How peers, media and culture impact self-image and sexuality.
  • Safety rules about using the internet, such as social media sites.
  • Information about birth control and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and how to access sexual health services.
  • How to recognize dating relationship problems and end unhealthy relationships safely.

Good to know

 Research shows that children and teens value what adults have to say about sexuality. Parents sometimes feel uncomfortable talking about sexuality with their children because of myths that suggest the more children know about sexuality the more they will experiment.

 Research has shown that when parents talk openly with their children and teens about sexuality, it leads to less risky behaviour, less conformity to what they think others are doing, and helps them to view their parents as good sources of information.1,2,3

Practical Strategies for Talking about Sexuality


To stay connected with children and teens and to be an approachable, “askable” adult, consider using humour. This helps normalize talking about sexuality, helps children feel that their adult is really interested and can help maintain strong relationships.

  • Speak to children and teens regularly – about sexuality and other topics.
  • Don’t feel discouraged if children and youth say they don’t want to learn about sexuality. Keep trying.
  • Provide correct information. Sharing false or made up information to ‘protect’ children is not helpful, reduces trust and means more explaining later!
  • Be practical, concrete and honest.
  • Tell children what they want to know, using words they can understand.
  • Along with facts, talk about feelings and relationships. 
  • Use teachable moments (e.g., TV shows, music or social media as a way to start talking).
  • Look for answers to questions at the library or on the internet – with the child or youth.
  • Help children learn from both good and bad experiences.
1Frappier, J.Y., Kaufman, M., Baltzer, F., Elliott, A., Lane, M., Pinzon, J., & McDuff, P. (2008). Sex and sexual health: A survey of Canadian youth and mothers. Pediatrics & Child Health, 13(1), 25-30. 
2Saskatchewan Prevention Institute. (2017). Parents as sexual health educators for their children: A literature review. Retrieved from 
3Breuner, C. C., Mattson, G., & Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health. (2016). Sexuality education for children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 138(2).