The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model is commonly used to guide the development of sexual health programming.7 According to Fisher & Fisher,8 there is evidence that information, motivation, and behavioral skills are linked to performing sexual health behaviors.
The IMB model proposes that information regarding sexual health, motivation to take action on this information, and behavioral skills for taking action are essential influencers of the initiation and maintenance of “healthy” behaviors. According to the model,8 an “individual’s information and motivation work primarily through [their] behavior skills to affect behavior.”
The IMB model suggests that pertinent, practical, age and developmentally appropriate information that is relevant to the life circumstances of an individual is needed for implementing and maintaining healthy sexual practices.8
The IMB model affirms that motivation to take action on healthy behaviors rests upon three factors: personal, emotional and social motivation. The first factor, personal motivation, is the attitudes and beliefs one holds related to healthy behaviors. The second factor, emotional motivation, is the positive and negative emotions related to healthy behaviors. The third factor, social motivation, is the beliefs regarding social norms or social support for healthy behaviors.8
Although applicable information and motivational aspects are significant components in the adoption of healthy behaviors, possessing appropriate behavior skills is needed to ensure healthy behaviors actually occur. Behavior skills consist of both objective abilities to induce healthy behaviors (e.g., correct condom use) and the self-efficacy for implementing those behaviors.8
For additional information on the IMB model and how to apply it, see The Canadian Guidelines for Sexual Health Education: http://sieccan.org/sexual-health-education/
The overall goal of the Population Health Promotion Model9 is to improve the health of the population through a comprehensive approach. Population health is an approach that addresses the entire range of factors that determine health and, by so doing, affects the health of the entire population.
Health promotion is commonly defined as a process for enabling people to take control over and improve their health. Population Health Promotion explains the relationship between population health and health promotion.
It shows how a population health approach can be implemented through action on the full range of health determinants by means of health promotion strategies. Action needs to be taken on the full range of health determinants which include: income and social status, social support networks, education, working conditions, physical environments, biology and genetics, personal health practices and coping skills, healthy child development, health services, gender, and culture. 9
A comprehensive set of action strategies needs to be used to bring about the necessary changes. Action needs to be taken at various levels of society in order for change to be effective and accomplished. 9
For more information on the Population Health Promotion Model, see: https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/health-promotion/population-health/population-health-promotion-integrated-model-population-health-health-promotion/developing-population-health-promotion-model.html
Primary health care10 is…
“essential health care based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination”
There are five principles of primary health care:
- Health promotion and disease/illness prevention.
- The use of appropriate knowledge, skills, resources, and technology.
- Individual and community participation.
- Accessible health services.
- Partnerships with various disciplines and sectors.
These principles are at the heart of public health practice and paramount to promoting the sexual health of high risk groups.